Purpose: Hospital clowns are widely used as a means of non-pharmacological intervention in the treatment of hospitalized children. However, little research has examined the impact of clowns on common painful needlerelated procedures. This study explored children's pain experience and their ability to cope during a venipuncture while interacting with a clown in the acute admission unit.
Design and methods: An ethnographic fieldwork study was conducted. Data were collected over a 10-month period through participant observation and informal interviews, supplemented by video recordings. The participants comprised 38 acutely admitted children aged 4 to 15 years undergoing a venipuncture in the presence of a hospital clown. Analysis was structured in three stages: before venipuncture; during venipuncture; and after venipuncture.
Results: The development of a responsive interaction between child and clown, identified as aWE, was found to be beneficial to the child during venipuncture procedure. The WE was characterized by three themes “How do WE do this together?”; “WE are together”; and “I/WE did it!”
Conclusions: The study emphasizes the importance of a WE established between child and hospital clown from the first encounter until a final evaluation. This WE was verbalized repeatedly by the clown and the child and was essential in shaping a tailored approach which met the needs of each child. This approach seemed to strengthen the child's competence in pain management and ability to cope, thus building competence for future venipunctures.
Practice implications: Establishing a WEmight advance the psychosocial care of hospitalized children undergoing acute painful procedures.
Artiklen er publiceret i Journal of Pediatric Nursing, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2019.03.013 og forfattet af: Helle Nygaard Kristensen, Erik Elgaard Sørensen, Jennifer Stinson og Helle Haslund Thomsen.